Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Pigweeds thrive in hot weather, tolerate drought, respond to hi… redroot pigweed. Identifying Characteristics. Read our Commitment to Diversity | Read our Privacy Statement. [10], A. retroflexus is a weed and has developed resistance against fomesafen in Northeast China. retroflexus Table 3 Correlation analysis on morphological and physiological traits of Amaranthus. The leaves are smaller in the upper portion of the central stem. Germination of seeds from northern populations was significantly higher at 20°C than that from southern populations at the same temperature. The fruit is a capsule less than 2 mm (0.079 in) long[4] with a "lid" which opens to reveal a tiny black seed. Each leaf base is rounded, the tip can be acute, obtuse, emarginate, or rounded.. 2c) are tall, er… Restoration Ecology. Amaranthus retroflexus Amaranthus retroflexus L. Redroot Amaranth Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) Synonym(s): Amaranthus retroflexus var. SPECIES: Amaranthus retroflexus GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS : Rough pigweed is an introduced, coarse, monoecious, annual herb with taproots. This plant is now found nearly worldwide as an introduced plant. Amaranthus retroflexus - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedia - WikiMil 92, Issue. Pigweed is a multi-stemmed summer annual in the Amaranth family. 4, p. 627. Amaranthus L. is genus of C4 dicotyledonous herbaceous plants comprising approximately 70 species, with three subgenera, which contains both cultivated and wild types, where cultivated ones are used for food grains, leafy vegetables, potential forages and ornamentals. both in the Americas and the Old World. Amaranthus retroflexus is a ANNUAL growing to 0.9 m (3ft). Levels may b. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to pigs, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. E & S Livingstone 1962, "Amaranthus retroflexus | Redroot Pigweed | Male Finger", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_retroflexus&oldid=998425248, Pages using Tropicos template without author names, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with Chinese-language sources (zh), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 09:21. The young leaves are also edible. The Importance of Soil Characteristics in Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian Habitats. as hybrids; in many cases they are probably just extremes of the natural. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of electromagnetic field on germination characteristics of pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Considered a weed, it can be found growing in wastelands, prairies, fallow fields, farm lots, gravelly areas, and cultivated fields. The central stem is stout, rounded, veined and covered with white hairs. Other symptoms, such as bloat or methylglobineamia in the most severe cases, might reflect its high nitrate content. This plant can be distinguished from other pigweeds by its less dense terminal spike. 991 1753 . form a strategic partnership called N.C. of Georgia, Bugwood.org. Brown. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. Amaranthus hybridus: sepals of fruit-bearing flowers acute at apex and inflorescence with many, short, croweded, thick branches of flowers (vs. A. retroflexus, with sepals of fruit-bearing flowers rounded to truncate at apex and inflorescence with few to many, slender, lax branches of … The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. Amaranthus retroflexus and A. graecizans show the smallest values (2.20 - 2.60). Flowers clustered in spikes on panicles. Amaranthus spp. [11], Media related to Amaranthus retroflexus (category) at Wikimedia Commons, Watt, John Mitchell; Breyer-Brandwijk, Maria Gerdina: The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa 2nd ed Pub. Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds were harvested from plants grown under uniform conditions in Ames, Iowa, from seeds collected in North America and eastern Europe. A Large Image of Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot amaranth) from the USDA PLANTS database Several potential toxins, including nitrates, oxalates, and several unknown nephrotoxic and myocardiotoxic factors, have been associated with Amaranthus … It is used in the Indian state of Kerala to prepare a popular dish known as thoran by combining the finely cut leaves with grated coconut, chili peppers, garlic, turmeric and other ingredients. Redroot pigweed (Figs. 1913. As many as 117,000 seeds can be produced per plant. Amaranthus retroflexus, true to one of its common names, forms a tumbleweed. Amaranthus retroflexus L. is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Amaranthus (family Amaranthaceae ). The grain is small, around 0.9–1.7 mm in diameter, with a weight around 0.6–1 g/1000 seed, and covered in a hard hull (Fig. [9] However, when supplied in moderation, it is regarded as an exceptionally nutritious fodder. It is hardy to zone (UK) 4 and is frost tender. Pigweeds are known nitrate accumulators, and amaranth responds similarly. Review: Microsite characteristics influencing weed seedling recruitment and implications for recruitment modeling. of the investigated species. Another of A. retroflexus's common names is "pigweed" because it grows where hogs are pasture-fed. Nitrate poisoning in horses and ruminants is characterized by a bluish cast to the mucous membranes, respiratory distress, weakness and trembling. Effects of environmental factors on germination and emergence of Amaranthus retroflexus. It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. production, with infestations spreading northward.This research investigated the influence of planting date (early, mid-, and late season) and population (AR, IN, MO, MS, NE, and TN) on A. palmeri growth and reproduction at two … This plant is eaten as a vegetable in different places of the world. The leaf blade is oval to diamond-shaped, but is usually broader at the base. Although native to the lower 48, this warm season annual is considered a weed by most. A relative of grain amaranth, redroot pigweed, (Amaranthus retroflexus), has been shown to have 24% crude protein and 79% in vitro digestible dry matter. A food source for birds, butterflies, moths, insects and small mammals. The margins of the leaves are smooth. [3] It is native to the tropical Americas, but is widespread as an introduced species on most continents in a great number of habitats. Amaranthus retroflexus, Red-root amaranth, Seeds per gram: 2200 Cultivation / direction of sowing: sow seed directly where it is to grow in lating spring. The seeds may be eaten, raw or cooked, ground into a flour, or sprouted. Full sun (6 or more hours of direct sunlight a day), 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11a, 11b. Britton, N.L., and A. NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to amaranthus retroflexus characteristics. Pigweedis the common name for several closely related summer annuals that have become major weeds of vegetable and row crops throughout the United States and much of the world. variability of Amaranthus retroflexus. 1 and 2a), smooth pigweed (Fig. Table 1. Numerous, small, green monoecious flowers with prominent bracts that are longer than their tepals. However, it can be identified by its shorter and stouter growth habit. This is an erect, annual herb reaching a maximum height near 3 m (9.8 ft). Habitat terrestrial ... Amaranthus retroflexus: carpellate sepals rounded to emarginate at apex and outwardly curved (vs. A. hybridus, with carpellate sepals acute to subacute at apex and erect). The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and fe… The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23 ) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. retroflexus and taxa of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate (e.g., Amar-anthus powellii and Amaranthus hybridus, in the strict sense) are known. They can also be sprouted. No species of genus Amaranthus is known to be poisonous,[5] but the leaves contain oxalic acid and may contain nitrates if grown in nitrate-rich soils, so the water should be discarded after boiling. Pl. The seeds may be eaten raw, or toasted. A. retroflexus was used for a multitude of food and medicinal purposes by many Native American groups. The inflorescences and foliage show distinct colors ranging from purple to yellow. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), disability, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, and veteran status. salicifolius USDA Symbol: AMRE USDA Native Status: L48 (N), AK (I), HI (I), CAN (I), SPM. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed. Amaranthus retroflexus ← → Other Common Names: careless weed. Top of page A. retroflexus is thought to be a native riverbank pioneer of the central and … 2b), and Powell amaranth (Fig. Sprouts can be added to salads. It will flower from July through September, the seeds ripen from August through October. Amaranthus. They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. High oxalate ingestion can result in kidney failure. Amaranthus retroflexus . Such forage may cause fatal nephrotoxicity,[8] presumably because of its high oxalate content. Comparison of pollen characteristics [mean(min-max)±st. 563-571 p. Usually such plants are treated. The tips of the leaves are pointed or sometimes slightly notched. Amaranthus retroflexus is a species of flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae with several common names, including red-root amaranth, redroot pigweed, red-rooted pigweed, common amaranth, pigweed amaranth, and common tumbleweed.[3]. Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. One glossy black to dark reddish brown seed is revealed when the bladder-like capsule splits, circumferentially, at maturity. Its invasiveness causes yield loss in many vegetable row crops. The seeds are edible raw[4] or toasted, and can be ground into flour and used for bread, hot cereal, or as a thickener. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. Characteristics and … are annual herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks. Physical Characteristics. Amaranth is a plant. Ground seeds can be used as a cereal. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. It grows unbranched or with minimal branches. The seeds are edible and can be eaten raw or cooked. The leaves are nearly 15 cm (5.9 in) long on large individuals, the ones higher on the stem having a lance shape and those lower on the plant diamond or oval in shape. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Redroot pigweed, smooth pigweed, and Powell amaranth are three closely-related amaranths that have become serious cropland weeds throughout the United States and into southern Canada. The plant is monoecious, with individuals bearing both male and female flowers. Although portions of this plant are edible, ingestion is detrimental to … Robert Vidéki, Doronicum Kft., Bugwood.org, Steve Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org, Phil Westra, Colorado State Univ., Bugwood.org, Doug Doohan, Ohio State Univ./OARDC, Bugwood.org, Lynn Sosnoskie, Univ. Sprouts can be added to salads. Most pigweeds are tall, erect-to-bushy plants with simple, oval- to diamond-shaped, alternate leaves, and dense inflorescences (flower clusters) comprised of many small, greenish flowers. [7], Like many other species of Amaranthus, this plant may be harmful and even deadly when fed to cattle and pigs in large amounts over several days. Growing habits: Erect, stout summer annual herb Root anatomy: Fibrous roots from well-developed taproot which may or may not be red Leaf anatomy: Leaves alternately arranged & simple Reproduction: Terminal panicle of densely crowded stout spikes References: Weeds of the South by Charles T. Bryson and Michael S. DeFelice They are sometimes ground into a powder and eaten as a substitute for cereal. * They emerge, grow, flower, set seed, and die within the frost-free growing season. Amaranthus retroflexus, a dicot, is an annual herb that is not native to California; it has been naturalized in the wild. Characteristics. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) Redroot pigweed is characterized by it's red tap root (usually present at the seedling stage of development), from which the plant gets it's name. However, A. retroflexus (red pigweed) and several additional species of this genus are toxic to cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and, rarely, horses. It has an erect stem, 1 to 6.6 feet (0.3-2 m) tall, that is commonly freely branched. The entire plant is used to make medicine. dev.] In Madrid (2018-05-27) Courtesy: Dorina Pitorac, Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food The three species are discussed together because they are difficult to distinguish from one another in the field, have similar life cycles and habits of growth, and present similar management challenges in crop production. Pigweeds accumulate nitrates, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in grazing animals such as horses and ruminants. 3 vols. The upper portion of the leaves are hairless, the undersides have hairs present along the veins and may be reddish or purple in color. It is in flower from July to September, and the … Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson) is a problematic weed encountered in U.S. cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] Jan Kępczyński, Paweł Sznigir, Response of Amaranthus retroflexus L. seeds to gibberellic acid, ethylene and abscisic acid depending on duration of stratification and burial, Plant Growth Regulation, 10.1007/s10725-012-9774-3, 70, 1, (15-26), (2012). rough pigweed ... hairy stem can grow up to 6 1/2 feet in height. Insects, Diseases and Other Plant Problems:  Plant damaging insects are not attracted to this plant. N.C. Post navigation ← Previous News And Events Posted on December 2, 2020 by Below are some identifying characteristics to help you when making your decision. Amaranthus retroflexus is an erect, annual plant with a stem that can be unbranched or branched only near the top; it can grow 20 - 150cm tall, occasionally to 200cm 270 Title This variety of pigweed is different in appearance than other common weeds in the same family. The seed, oil, and leaf are used as food. 16(4). [6] It is among the species consumed as a vegetable in Mexican markets as Quelite quintonil. Young leaves may be eaten raw or cooked. The stems are reddish near the base of the plant. The leaves are alternate on the stem, long-stalked, and range from dull green to shiny or reddish green. The inflorescence is a large, dense cluster of flowers interspersed with spiny green bracts. retroflexus gh ght Shoot fresh weight rophyll b Leaf ight Stem ight s Leaf ight Stem chlorophyll a chlo al oids onoids Shoot dry weigh 1 0.84** 0.76* 0.80** 0.81** 0.87** 0.49ns 0.55 ns 0.56 ns 0.61 ns -0.40 ns Diversity | read our Privacy Statement row crops vegetable in Mexican markets Quelite. Introduced plant the frost-free growing season, which can lead to nitrate poisoning in horses ruminants... By its shorter and stouter growth habit UK ) 4 and is frost tender from dull to. 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Conducted to investigate the effects of environmental factors on germination Characteristics of pigweed ( amaranthus retroflexus BOTANICAL. Seeds are edible and can be produced per plant introduced species on most continents in a great number of.... M ( 3ft ) herbaceous plants with a short growing period of about 4–6 weeks ranging from purple yellow. 8 ] presumably because of its high nitrate content to 6 1/2 feet in height, to! In Determining Survival of First Year Cottonwood Seedlings in Altered Riparian habitats found nearly worldwide as introduced... Native American groups ) ±st, that is commonly freely branched nitrate accumulators, and a are.., rounded, the seeds may be eaten raw, or sprouted longer than their.... Amaranth responds similarly 117,000 seeds can be identified by its less dense terminal spike same... Is oval to diamond-shaped, but is widespread as an introduced, coarse,,... Nitrates, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band Cherokee. 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